Страницы

суббота, 12 марта 2016 г.

English shortenings & abbreviations


Shortenings and abbreviations are widely used in English. They help to simplify the language and save our time. But at the same time if you don't catch the right meaning, you have got some difficulties with communication. So let's focus on English shortenings and abbreviations today.
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr.abbrv. or abbrev (the information was taken from Wikipedia)
 The first abbreviations were taken from Latin:
e.g. - for example (Latin exampli gratia)
a.m.- in the morning (ante meridiem)
p.m.-in the afternoon (post meridiem)
i.e.-that is (id est)
etc - and other things (et cetera)
The first list of abbreviations "Modus Legendi Abbreviature" was created in 1475. It consisted of 38 (!) pages. We can find 'gle - general' there.
In 1641 an abbreviation 'cit -citizen' appeared. In 1660 'miss-mistress' appeared.
In 1837 Charles Dickens used  the abbreviations P.V.P. - Perpetual Vice- President, M.P.C.- Member Pickwick Club, G.C. - General Chairman in his "Posthumous Papers of  the Pickwick Club".
O.K.- okey (Oll Korrect, a jokey misspelling "All Correct") and N.Y.- New York , co-ed -cooperative education, gym - gymnasium, fan -fanatic. 
But the most used abbreviations have appeared  in 1991 due to the World Wide Web. We use a lot of shortenings and abbreviations while chatting on-line or texting. It's so called DIGISPEAK.
 And here is the list of these abbreviations:

Shortening
Meaning
AFAIK
As far as I know
ADR
Address
AFAIC
As far as I’m concerned
AFK
Away from keyboard
A/S/L
Age/sex/location
ATM
At the moment
AWGTHTGTTA
Are we going to have to go through this again
AYT
Are you there
BBL
Be back later
BD
Big deal
BF
Best friend/boyfriend
BFN
Bye for now
BRB
Be right back
BTDT
Been there, done that
BTW
By the way
BZ
Busy
CUL
See you later
CYO
See you on-line
DETI
Don’t even think it
DIKY
Do I know you?
DQMOT
Don’t quote me on this
EBCAK
Error between chair and keyboard. 
EBKAC
Error between keyboard and chair. 
F2F
Face to face
FOAF
Friend of a friend
FWIW
For what it’s worth
FYI
For your information
GAL
Get a life
GF
Girlfriend
GD&R
Grinning, ducking and running
GMTA
Great minds think alike
HB
Hurry back
HHOK
Ha,ha, only kidding
IANAL I
I am not a lawyer
IAW
In accordance with
IMCO
In my considered opinion
IMHO
In my humble opinion
IMO
In my opinion
IOW
In other words
JK
Just kidding
JAS
Just a second
JOOTT
Just one of those things
KISS
Keep it simple, stupid
KIT
Keep in touch
OK
Okey
LMAO
Laughing my ass off
LOL
Laughing out loud/lots of love/lots of luck
LYLAS
Love you like a sister
MYOB
Mind your own business
MWA
Kiss (the sound of ‘mwa’)
N2M
Not too much
NIH
Not invented here
NM
Never mind
OIC
Oh, I see
OAO
Over and out
OTOH
On the other hand
OTP
On the phone
PAL
Parents are listening
PEBCAK
Problem exists between chair and keyboard. 
PEBKAC
Problem exists between keyboard and chair
PIR
Parents in room
PLBCAK
Problem lies between chair and keyboard
PLBKAC
Problem lies between keyboard and chair
PMJI
Pardon my jumping in
PTG&LI
Playing the game and loving it
RL
Real life
ROFL
Rolling on the floor laughing
STFU
Shut the f***up!
SUP
What’s up?
TANSTAAFL
There ain't no such thing as a free lunch
TIA
Thanks in advance
TTFN
Ta,ta for now(=goodbye)
TTT
Thought that too
TTYL
Talk to you later
TU
Thank you
TY
Thank you
WFM
Works for me
YT
You there?
YW
You’re welcome
We also use many shortenings in spoken English. They are:
sis – sister
doc – doctor
telly – television
phone – telephone
plane – airplane
vator – elevator
zine – magazine
specs – spectacles
fridge – refrigeration
flu – influenza
comfy – comfortable
imposs – impossible
mizzy — miserable
I also remember the abbreviation DUFF proposed by a famous young writer Kody Keplinger 
As you can see people have invented a new language and they understand one another pretty good
I hope so:) 
Ok, BFN, CUL;)
PS: If you know another abbreviations, please write them in  comments.It'll be nice to learn something new.

Комментариев нет:

Отправить комментарий